The research which resulted in the HandShoe Mouse design was initiated at Erasmus University MC in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Specific complaints were noted with students who used conventional or so-called ergonomic mice. Next to discomfort in hands, arms and shoulders excessive tension in various neck muscles resulted in a restrictive range of motion.
EMG data from fundamental research at Erasmus University MC showed significant levels of Extensor Muscle activity without moments of rest, with a regular mouse. Forced pronation of the hand and forearm in combination with fingers hovering over the buttons were identified as a source of high EMG signals.
This was contrary to the EMG values when a hand supporting object was used:
A regular mouse is generally too small for the hand resulting in a grip like action of thumb and fingers and thus excessive muscle loads i.e. high EMG values.With a fitting hand supporting mouse there is no need to grip and pinch.
A supporting contour allowed fingers to rest as a stabilized arch in stead of hover (K.J. van Zwieten et al., 2011).
It should be noted that unnecessary and/or excessive muscle loads (muscle tonus) prove to have negative effects on the cellular structures of the human body and thus muscles and nerves, ref. Cinderella Effect (B. Visser and J.H. Van Dieën, 2006).
In general the objective should be to realize a low ratio of EMG value and Minimal Voluntary Contraction (MVC).
As prototype an anatomically derived hand supporting computer mouse was extensively field tested over a period of 1 year (P.C. Helder et al., 2006).
To substantiate the positive results realized by the introduction of a hand supporting computer mouse, an evaluation was performed in cooperation with Maastricht University MC. This entailed a comparison of 8 ergonomic computer mice and a regular mouse with the prototype hand supporting mouse.
Substantiation of findings is corroborated by publications e.g., Hand and Forearm Angle (Han-Ming Chen et al., 2007), Interosseous Membrane (K.J. van Zwieten et al., 2010).